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Full text of "Shifting Slides: The Effect of John Cage's "Solo for Sliding Trombone" (1957-58) On Modern Trombone Literature and Pedagogy"

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The undersigned, appointed by the Schwob School of Music at 
Columbus State University, have examined the Graduate Music 

Project titled 



Shifting Slides: The Effect of John Cage's Solo for Sliding 
Trombone (1957-58) on Modern Trombone Literature and Pedagogy 



Presented by Andrew Michael Shelton 

a candidate for the degree of Master of Music in Music Education 

and hereby certify that in their opinion it is worthy of 

acceptance . 





Shifting Slides 



Running Head: SHIFTING SLIDES 



Shifting Slides: The Effect of John Cage's Solo for Sliding 
Trombone (1957-58) on Modern Trombone Literature and Pedagogy 



Andrew Shelton 



Columbus State University 



Shifting Slides 3 
Table of Contents 

Abstract 4 

Introduction 5 

Trombone Technique and Literature until 1950 6 

Leading up to the Shift 10 

John Cage: Ignition Point 17 

Solo for Sliding Trombone (1957-58) 22 

Analysis of Solo for Sliding Trombone 24 

Resultant Literature and Pedagogy 3 4 

• Brad Edwards' Blue Wolf (1997) 36 

• Teaching Extended Techniques 3 9 

• Multiphonics 4 4 

• Glissando 4 6 

Conclusion 4 9 

Appendix 51 

References 58 



Shifting Slides 



Abstract 
The trombone has a limited history concerning literature and 
technique development. A turning point for the literature of the 
trombone was with John Cage's Solo for Sliding Trombone. This 
composition brought about new techniques that would permeate 
throughout subsequent literature. These new techniques would 
also impact trombone pedagogy and accepted technique. This paper 
explains the impact Solo for Sliding Trombone had on the 
development of the instrument including literature and pedagogy. 



Shifting Slides 5 



Shifting Slides: The Effect of John Cage's Solo for Sliding 
Trombone (1957-58) on Modern Trombone Literature and Pedagogy 

The trombone can be found in band halls, orchestral halls, 
jazz clubs, and even pop concerts. This is in due part to the 
work of many musicians, particularly those of the 20 th century. 
The instrument, like many others, has developed along with the 
styles and genres of music during modern times. However, the 
trombone experienced an unusual progression through its 
development. From the conception of the trombone in the 1400s 
until the mid-twentieth century there was relatively little 
progress and innovation in technigue and repertoire. It was not 
until the wake of the Second World War that John Cage sought to 
clean the slate of modern music and began to press the 
possibilities of sound and technique. Cage's compositions 
created new demands of composers and trombonists alike. New 
techniques and notational systems were developed as a result of 
the work of John Cage. This made possible for new avenues of 
trombone performance and composition. This research will show 
how John Cage's Solo for Sliding Trombone transformed the 
landscape of trombone technique and literature in the mid- 
twentieth century. This paper will discuss the history of 
trombone literature and pedagogy, literature prior to Cage' s 
work, John Cage, Solo for Sliding Trombone, literature 



Shifting Slides < 

influenced by Cage, and how to deal with pedagogical issues 
resultant of the new extended techniques. 

Trombone technique and literature until 1950 

Literature plays an integral role in the development of any 
instrument. With literature that does not challenge musical 
ability and technique, an instrument and its performers have no 
driving force to improve and advance. This is a concern that the 
trombone and trombonists faced for several hundred years. The 
span of the late 1400s through the mid-twentieth century saw 
rather little development and curiosity in trombone literature. 
During this time frame many of the greatest eras in musical 
history and composition, the Classical (1750-1820) and Romantic 
(1820-1900), came to pass. This was a time of the greatest 
compositions in modern history, but of which the trombone was 
largely left out. When the literature of the trombone is 
compared to a younger brass instrument, the French horn, during 
the same time frame there are noticeable discrepancies. The 
French horn can be found in the compositions of Mozart, Strauss, 
Rossini, and Beethoven. This lineup of significant composers has 
many implications including international attention and a level 
familiarity attached to the literature. There are exceptions for 
the trombone that include compositions by Camille Saint-Saens 
and Leopold Mozart but these are rare examples. The trombone 



Shifting Slides 7 

went virtually unrecognized by leading composers during this 
span of time. 

The development of trombone technique has a similar history 
to that of trombone literature. Trombonists in Europe found 
themselves doubling voice lines in liturgical settings and 
playing in small town bands until the early Baroque period. 
These town bands were known as "alta bands" or loud bands, which 
included instruments like the cornett, trumpet, shawm, and 
trombone. The soft instruments like the lute and flute were 
preferred in intimate and private settings that accompany royal 
courts, whereas the alta bands were for outdoor public events. 
The exclusion of the loud instruments from the royal private 
chambers meant that these early brass players were less 
respected and compensated (Guion, 2010) . The role of the 
trombone in churches took a similar course. Trombones were used 
to double voice lines primarily. Giovanni Gabrieli, music 
director at Saint Mark' s Basilica in Venice utilized the 
trombone in many of his works. In Sonata pian' e forte there are 
multiple trombones in each of two choirs. His music provided for 
increased technical demands in the player with more melodic 
material introduced. This move forward was suppressed as the 
trombone and other brass instruments were slowly replaced in 
churches by strings and woodwinds. This repression forced the 



Shifting Slides 8 

instrument into a stereotype of lesser artistic and social 
value. Only in a handful of countries, like Germany, did the 
trombone have civic duties within the town, which was merely to 
play during town festivals and to signify the change of the hour 
(Herbert 2006) . 

George Friederic Handel began to incorporate the trombone 
in oratorios in the early 18 tf century, which acted as a catalyst 
for other composers like Gluck and Mozart, who put the trombone 
front and center. After its introduction into oratorios many 
Parisian composers regularly had trombones in their operas and 
ballets (Guion, 2010) . This set up for the model of the trombone 
section within operas and orchestras as we know it today. 

With this new role in popular operas and orchestras the 
trombone now required a new component to its existence, 
pedagogy. This provided another challenge, as there was no 
formalized method for teaching and learning the instrument. This 
also meant that the standards for trombone playing were 
virtually nonexistent. Without standards of practice composers 
had no idea of the capabilities of the instrument, which in turn 
deterred them from writing for it technically or melodically. 

It was not until the eighteenth century that trombone 
pedagogy came into being in the form of the conservatory 
movement, most notably at the Paris Conservatory. With the help 



Shifting Slides ! 

of many skilled trombone soloists and teachers like Antoine 
Deippo, method books and teaching methods were established. 
Conservatories also helped to create something new--a growing 
body of solo literature. The first documented trombone solo was 
published in 1621, by Giulio Martino Cesare. Only two other 
known solos remain as evidence of literature of the seventeenth 
century. Of the eighteenth century only three dedicated trombone 
solos came about (Guion 2010) . French Conservatories assisted in 
the elimination of the deficiency of trombone solos. With annual 
solo competitions and degree requirements at the Paris 
Conservatory, composers were asked to write solo pieces with 
appropriate difficulty. With these important components in place 
the trombone should flourish, but it would still take decades 
longer for the instrument to progress to modern standards. 

The technical threshold established at this point in 
history seems to have limited composers' artistic vision for 
trombone literature. The only significant innovation from the 
18 t1 ' century until the mid-twentieth century was the increase in 
tempo, as trombonists and composers discovered that music could 
be played faster. This advance would provide little help in 
developing trombone literature. 



Shifting Slides 10 

Leading Up To the Shift 

The modern trombone concerto as we know it today has 
its roots in Germany. The Concertino for Trombone (1837) by 
Ferdinand David was the product of collaboration by one of 
Europe's legendary trombonists, Carl Traugott Queisser, and 
composers Felix Mendelssohn and Ferdinand David. Queisser was a 
famed virtuoso that could allegedly play all instruments ranging 
from flute to bass trombone, but his specialties were trombone 
and violin. He was the solo trombonist in the Gewandhaus 
orchestra, where he performed with concertmaster Ferdinand David 
under the baton of Felix Mendelssohn. All three musicians 
conspired together to come up with a concerto to showcase the 
talents of young Queisser (Lindberg, 2010) . Little did these 
gentlemen know that their product would become a landmark in the 
trombone's history. Until this point there were no major 
concertos for the trombone, and from this point it would be 
decades until Rimsky-Korsakov would write his Concerto for 
Trombone. The only other major concerto for the instrument in 
the 19 tl " century was Felix Alexandre Guilmant's Morceau 
Symphonique . In contrast to this limited amount of output, the 
trumpet had more than triple the amount of literature by this 
point in time. 



Shifting Slides 11 

As the music scene in the United States shifted from 
concert halls to traveling bands and outdoor concerts during the 
turn of the 20 tlr century, groups like the Sousa Band and the 
Fillmore Band came into fashion. This allowed the trombone to 
become a more prominent solo instrument. Its popularity peaked 
with one young man named Arthur Pryor. Pryor got his start in 
John Phillip Sousa' s band in 1892, assuming the solo trombone 
position from famed trombonist Frank Holton. Holton was noted as 
relinquishing the chair to Pryor citing that he could not 
compete with the spry virtuoso (Benjamin, 1999) . Pryor made a 
name for himself playing lovely ballads and blazing showpieces. 
Many of the showpieces were composed by Pryor himself, and as a 
result much of the literature of the turn of the century came 
from him. Pryor' s Blue Bells of Scotland and Annie Laurie are 
two of the compositions that gave the trombonist a new role— 
virtuosic soloist. With soaring melodies and light speed 
variations audiences now saw the trombone as a legitimate solo 
instrument. While this development was positive for the 
popularity of the instrument, there remained little progress in 
the music being composed. While Pryor advanced the popularity 
and technique of the trombone, composers still operated with the 
same range and overall technique boundaries. The lower and upper 
register still had unspoken limitations (See Figure 1 and 2) 
limiting the trombone from GG to c' ' . 



Shifting Slides 12 



Figure 1 



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Shifting Slides 13 

Into the 1940s the only aspect of trombone literature that 
was expanding was its harmonic language. Paul Hindemith' s Sonata 
for Trombone and Piano (1942) not only provided the trombone 
with its first sonata with piano, but also provided the 
instrument with a work that utilized some of the modern 
theoretical techniques of composition (Thompson, 52). 
Hindemith' s Sonata did not give way to the standard romantic 
view of solo writing, instead it took to the more 
impressionistic style of Ravel or Debussy. The solo contains 
many chromatic harmonies and the use of a disconnected solo line 
instead of the flowing Romantic harmony and melody (See Figure 
3) . As the exploration of tonality and style continued, the 
extension of the instruments voice and sound possibilities did 
not . 



Shifting Slides 



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Figure 3 



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Shifting Slides 15 

It was not until 1948 when Leonard Bernstein wrote a piece 
in honor of his brother' s deceased dog that trombone literature 
would have a spark of creativity. Elegy for Mippy II was written 
for solo trombone in honor of Bertie Bernstein' s "mongrel" dog 
Mippy. Bernstein calls for the trombonist to "accompany himself 
by tapping one foot, mf, four to the bar", as to mimic the tail 
of Mippy slapping the floor (Bernstein, 1950) . As this may seem 
rather elementary or humorous this was a giant leap for trombone 
literature. This provided for the introduction of a theatre— type 
piece as well as the incorporation of jazz into the classical 
solo literature. Eugene Bozza incorporated blues themes and 
rhythms into his Ballad (1944) and well as New Orleans (1962), 
but these brief elusions fall short in comparison to the jazz 
influence of Elegy for Mippy II. Bernstein endeavored to mimic 
the improvisatory style of a big band trombonist. This piece 
also introduced the idea of having performance instructions, 
which will be used often in years to come (See Figure 4) . Prior 
to this point jazz solos were left for the bandstand and classic 
solos for the concert hall. Bernstein took some of the first 
steps to bridge the divide between the two idioms. Jazz 
trombonists of the early twentieth century developed a new sound 
concept and implemented new techniques. Jazz trombonists 
introduced the smaller, brighter sound of the instrument by 
using small-bore instruments. These trombonists also began to 



Shifting Slides 16 

implement such newer techniques as the "shake" into literature. 
Flutter tonguing and the "growl" also crept into the jazz 
vocabulary. The use of mutes, such as plunger, straight mute, 
and cup mute were also being used in the jazz movement. These 
new techniques and sounds were available, but it would not be 
until John Cage that they fully matriculated into classical 
trombone solo literature. 

Figure 4 . 

Leonard Bernstein Elegy for Mippy II 



"Mippy II was a mongrel belonging to my brother Burtie. 

"The trombonist should accompany himself by tapping one foot, mf, four to the bar, e.g. f^pl^p^ 1 ^— p "^ — p— y—\~ ~ 



Shifting Slides 17 

John Cage: Ignition Point 

As the 20 th century began so did a discontent with the 
modern human state. In accordance with history this discontent 
was felt and amplified in the writings and works of artists. Two 
world wars, the Great Depression, and a "police action" in Korea 
had thrown young Americans into disbelief of what mormal' and 
'correct' were. The reaction could be seen in the abstract 
paintings of Jackson Pollock and in the music of Arnold 
Schoenberg, who set out to display the chaos that was felt but 
at the same time operate within boundaries. Pollock's boundaries 
were inside the border of the canvas and Schoenberg established 
his boundaries with his new method of musical composition, the 
tone row. 

Schoenberg' s tone rows were composed of all 12 tones that 
make up an equal tempered octave. These tones can be chosen at 
any order but not be repeated. This row of 12 tones must be 
stated in its entirety before another form of the row appears. 
Rows can be inverted and manipulated providing numerous ways to 
state the row. This was in direct opposition to the tonal system 
that used chords made of triads that moved in progressions, 
where the vertical was favored over the linear. Though this 
music sounded disorderly to some listeners; in reality, it 



Shifting Slides IS 

contained a highly structured framework. This concept would spur 
the minds of a new generation of composers. 

A composition student of Schoenberg was John Cage (1912- 
92). Cage found himself dissatisfied with modern conventions of 
music as well as the new serialism trends of Schoenberg and 
others. Cage believed that music needed not be constrained by 
any manner of harmonic structure. Instead, Cage developed a 
method of structure based on rhythmic patterns in the 1930s. In 
his composition First Construction (in Metal) (1939) Cage used 
16 measure phrasing patterns of 4+3+2+3+4 and 16 measures of 
rhythmic patterns of 4+3+2+3+4, which makes the structure of the 
whole the same as the parts (Chilton 2007) . This "square-root 
form" created a rhythmic structure independent of any other 
musical aspect, including harmony, the basis of western 
classical music (Chilton 2007) . Cage felt that music as he knew 
it was made up of sounds and silence, not predetermined tones in 
a row or chord progressions. Cage placed more importance on 
duration than harmony. He writes, "The Rhythmic structure could 
be expressed with any sounds including noise... or as stillness". 
Cage stated that sound has four characteristics: pitch, timbre, 
loudness, and duration. Of these four elements duration is the 
only element that contains both sound and silence and thus "is 
Correct" (Chilton, 2007) . The focus of sound and how one gets 



Shifting Slides 19 

from sound to sound gave a new spin on how music was to be 
conceived. 4' 33'' (1952) was the first and most popular of 
Cage's utilization of silence (Chilton, 2007) . The piece had 
sounds not produced by the performer (s) but instead relied on 
the audience and ambient noise to create the sound. Cage was now 
further diverting conventions of music away from the tonal basis 
to that of sound and silence. 

John Cage began as a student composer in the western 
classical tradition. He then moved away from this and began to 
collaborate with dancers and dance companies like that of the 
Cornish School (Chilton, 2007) . In these early dance 
compositions, Cage developed the orchestration and 
instrumentation techniques that he would use in many of his 
later compositions. Having little budget and cramped space for 
instrumentation he made use of percussion instruments and later 
the prepared piano (Pritchett, 1993) . The prepared piano was 
made up of a normal piano with metallic objects placed at 
strategic points along the wires. This created a dampening 
effect when certain notes were played as well as a different 
timbre (Pritchett, 1993) . This discovery of the prepared piano 
would transfer into many of his later compositions. The 
possibilities that he created with the prepared piano would 
drive his curiosity for other instruments. 



Shifting Slides 20 

Cage' s next phase of exploration would center on his 
fascination with Eastern philosophies, in particular the 
principle of Zen. His study of Zen led him to the concept of 
non— intentional composition (Chilton, 2007). The method of 
composing took prejudice out of the work, and would come to be 
known as chance composition. Using coin tosses or rolling of 
dice Cage would put events of sound and silence in order. Other 
examples of his chance music included composing for radios tuned 
to specific freguencies. Even though the radio called for 
specific tunings there was no way to predict what type of 
station operated on that freguency or if there was a station at 
all. Cage developed another technigue known as indeterminacy, 
which allowed the performer freedom in interpretation 
(Pritchett, 1993) . Cage made a distinction between chance and 
indeterminacy in that chance has open compositional methods and 
a fixed score, while indeterminacy has a fixed compositional 
style but openly interpreted score. Indeterminacy would be the 
method for one of Cage's larger works, Concert for Piano and 
Orchestra (1957-58) . 

Concert for Piano and Orchestra is where the study of the 
avant-garde movement as well as the expansion of trombone 
literature and technigue begins. Deliberately entitled "Concert" 
this piece was meant to be a departure from the traditional 



Shifting Slides 21 

concerto and instead place importance on the individual 
performers (Pritchett, 1993) . In addition to its importance with 
the trombone this composition alters the significance of the 
conductor's role. Cage did not buy into the hierarchy of 
conductor, soloist, and performer; instead he thought that an 
ensemble was made of individuals acting as soloists who in turn 
bring the ensemble into being (Nicholls, 2002) . Another 
beneficial outcome of this composition was the use of chance 
composition that resulted in many varying notational systems. 
The piano part contained the majority of these different 
notations, in total 84 different types (Pritchett, 1993) . 
Instrumentation for Concert for Piano and Orchestra was for a 
smaller orchestra, only seven strings, flute/alto flute/piccolo, 
clarinet, bassoon/saxophone, trumpet, trombone, and tuba. With 
this set instrumentation there could be any number of 
performers, as well as any one or more performers playing any 
portions together or alone (Cage, 1957) . In all parts there is 
no clef, only a staff, as note interpretation was left to the 
performer. Cage does however provide the performers with many 
detailed instructions for interpretation and performance. One 
such instruction allows the performer to play any portion of the 
piece with or without other performers and their parts. With 
this instruction we get the origins of Solo for Sliding Trombone 
(1957-58) . 



Shifting Slides 22 

Solo for Sliding Trombone (1957-58) 

To fully grasp the impact of this composition it is 
beneficial to look to a quote from the first professional 
/American avant-garde trombonist, Stuart Dempster, "The Solo may 
be the first truly avant-garde piece for trombone; certainly it 
is the first piece for trombone of an avant-garde nature to 
receive any sort of fame" (Dempster, 1979) . From first glance at 
the score and preliminary instructions one may notice that the 
performer has dual roles, performer and composer. Most of the 
decisions of the work are left to the performer, a grave 
departure from previous works that require strict performance 
practice in Western art music traditions. The notion that each 
performance can and must be unique is part of why this piece is 
so ground breaking for the trombone. 

The process in which Cage composed Solo for Sliding 
Trombone also lends itself to a new wave of trombone literature. 
This piece was not conceived as wholly "classical", popular, 
avant-garde, or jazz composition; it was a mesh of all. Cage 
combined all these ideals into one work, not simply putting a 
taste or influence here or there. Similar to Bernstein's Elegy 
for Mippy II the piece has a significant influence from jazz 
trombonists. Before composing it Cage sought out a leading jazz 
trombonist of the era to assist in his new creation, Frank Rehak 



Shifting Slides 23 

(Dempster, 1979) . Frank Rehak was a popular trombonist in the 
Los Angeles studio scene as well as touring with many famous big 
bands like Gene Krupa and Woody Herman. Cage felt that he would 
need special collaboration to make this piece so unique. In 
their first meeting they discussed and experimented with such 
sounds as without mouthpiece, without slide, without tuning 
slide, glass over bell, inhalation, exhalation, circular 
breathing, double stops (multiphonics ) , and so on (Dempster, 
1979) . This act collaboration would be the basis for the 
experimental writing as well as a key feature of future trombone 
literature. Previous conventions in place allowed for the 
composer to write within the limits of present accepted ability 
and not to request anything new. It was at the turn of the 20 th 
century that Arthur Pryor expanded range and technique, but with 
no need for collaboration as Pryor was a trombonist himself. The 
idea of collaboration that Cage pioneered in this work would set 
up for much of the literature that would ensue in the coming 
decades . 



Shifting Slides 24 

Analysis of Solo for Sliding Trombone 

In stark contrast to any trombone literature written before 
1957 Solo provides new notation and demands new techniques. The 
first step in understanding this new type of literature is to 
read the instructions given by Cage. In the case of Solo for 
Sliding Trombone there are eight paragraphs to read and 
interpret. Information provided explained what note shapes and 
sizes meant, where to start and stop, what symbols mean, and so 
forth. This in itself was a foreign concept, in that previous 
literature at most had tempo or stylistic indications. 

The intention of this paper is to uncover the new 
techniques made available to the trombonist with this 
composition from John Cage. While Solo for Sliding Trombone 
demanded many new techniques of the trombonist, it also contains 
many new compositional and scoring techniques that would alter 
the landscape of not only trombone literature, but western 
classical tradition overall. 

Solo has no clef, key signature, or time signature (See 
Figure 5) which in itself is a remarkable departure from the 
norm. Solo, orchestral, band, and jazz literature is commonly 
written in the standard tonal tradition, which includes clef, 
key, and time signature. Each page has five systems and each 
system's time length is variable, in accordance with the 



Shifting Slides 25 

performer's wishes. Cage brought his method of indeterminacy to 
this work. The score is set up so that it has a fixed 
compositional style but can, and should, be played any number of 
ways . 

Figure 5 . 

John Cage Solo for Sliding Trombone First system 

N.Y. 
TUtilfiG m B-OTT. HARD 

1L . 



In regards to rhythm Cage gives three classifications of 
note length: small note head, medium mote head, and large note 
head. A small note head could be played short in duration, a 
medium note head medium in duration, and a large note head long 
in duration (Cage, 1957) . Cage also adds a second layer onto his 
note head classification. Instead of having rhythm and dynamics 
completely separate from each other he combines the two with 
instructions for note head size. Not only does note head size 
relate to rhythm duration is also relates to volume. A small 
note head could mean pianississimo , pianissimo, or piano. A 
medium note head could mean mezzo piano or mezzo forte. A large 
note head could mean forte, fortissimo , or fortississimo (See 



Shifting Slides 26 

Figure 6) (Cage, 1957) . These many options allow for each 
performer to choose the interpretation of each note head, 
whether dynamic or rhythmic, and again ensures a unique 
performance. In contrast to Figures 1, 2, and 3 notice the 
distinction of and traditional construction of dynamics and 
rhythm. 

Figure 6. 

John Cage Solo for Sliding Trombone Note heads 



Length and intensity of crescendos and decrescendos are 
also left to the performer. A combination crescendo and 
decrescendo mark is given when performer has total control or 
dynamic contrast (See Figure 7) . 

Figure 7 . 

John Cage Solo for Sliding Trombone Dynamic markings 



Cage indicates that all notes are separate from one 
another. Each note should be preceded and followed by silence. 
This highlights a contrast with traditional methods of 
composition, especially that of the not so distant Romantic 



Shifting Slides 27 

period where long flowing melodies were preferred. The idea of 
sound and silence versus harmonic progression permeates this 
composition. Cage would in turn influence subseguent composers 
by demonstrating how sound and lack there of can be as important 
as tonality. Luciano Berio and Jacob Druckman would experiment 
in the following decade with more complex sounds and more 
scripted silences. 

Another new idiom that Solo introduces is the extensive use 
of mutes. The use of brass mutes dates to Claudio Monteverdi's 
opera L' Orf eo (1607) with the call for "Clarino con tre trombe 
sordine", or that "all the trumpets should be muted" (Cassone 
2009) . The use of mutes in orchestral literature would continue 
for hundreds of years but only yield two primary mutes, the 
straight mute and cup mute. During the jazz age of the 1920s, 
1930s, and 1940s a more diverse sounding mute collection was 
developed. The solo tone mute, buzz-wah mute, wah-wah mute, 
bucket mute, derby hat, and plunger were all conceived within 
the ever more complex color palate of jazz composers. With this 
palate of mutes available solo literature only made use of two, 
the straight mute and cup mute, which had been used for hundreds 
of years. Cage would bring the buzz-wah mute, plunger, and derby 
hat into the classical trombone literature. A dotted line under 
the staff indicates when to start and stop use of mute (See 



Shifting Slides 2 

Figure 8) . The mutes were also numbered one through five. 
Numbers one and three may be chosen freely, number 2 is a 
plunger, number four is a mute that produces a buzz, and number 
five is a derby hat. An addendum to the introduction of mutes 
into solo literature was the necessity to learn how to play 
these mutes, which in turn means that a new facet of trombone 
technique and pedagogy is the mastery of mute playing. 

Figure 8 . 

John Cage Solo for Sliding Trombone mute indication 



W- 






The new sounds and techniques that came from the 
collaboration of Cage and Rehak would be the basis for a 
paradigm shift in trombone literature. Just as Cage found new 
ways to evoke sound from the piano he would also do so for the 
trombone. Some of these techniques had been used in situations 
like jazz improvisation but never taken seriously by Western art 
music composers. These sounds were not considered to be part of 
the proper repertory of tones for the instrument and thus were 
not included in classical literature being composed. 



Shifting Slides 29 

Looking closer at the new techniques used in Solo for 
Sliding Trombone one can see that almost every facet of sound 
production from the instrument and performer has been utilized 
(See Table 1) . In contrast, classical trombone literature 
composed up to 1957 contains very few examples of extended 
techniques (See Table 2) . 



Shifting Slides 



30 



Table 1 



Extended Techniques in Solo for Sliding Trombone 



Technique 


Abbreviation 


Tuning slide out 


Tuning slide out 


Flutter tongue 


Flutt . 


Free glissando 


AA^v_ 


Mouthpiece in bell 




Spit valve open 


SP. 


Breathy attack 


Breath 


Buzz with mouthpiece only 


Buzz 


Buzz with lips only 


Buzz 


Buzzing into a conch shell 


Conch 


Slide played into jar 


In Jar 


Mouthpiece played into bell 
flare 


Mouthpiece In Bell 


Plunger Mute 


Plunger 


Play on Slide section only 


Slide Disconnected/Without Bell 


No vibrato 


N.V. 


Hard/soft tongue 


Hard T/Soft T 


Make a barking noise 


Bark 


Us 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 


se mute (numbered 1-5) 
Performer' s choice 
Plunger 

Performer' s choice 
Mute that produces a buzz 
Hat 


1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 


Microtonal slide (placement or 
glissando) 


1 1 S 


Trill 


Trill 


Double/Triple tongue 


// or /// 


Vibrato 


Slide, lip, or combination 
(Included in instructions) 


No Vibrato 


N.V. 



Shifting Slides 



31 



Table 2. 

Extended techniques used in selected accepted trombone 
literature prior to 1957 (Thompson 2004). 



Technique 


Composer /Composition 


Tapping foot to accompany 


-L. Bernstein/Elegy for Mippy II 


Trill 


-B. Croce-Spinelli/Soio de concours 
-E. Reiche/Concert Piece No. 2 
-G. Ropart z/Piece en mi bemol mineur 
-G. Jacob/Concerto 


Multiple Tonguing 


-M. de Jong/Morceau de Concertstuck 

-V . Blazhevich/ Concerto No. 10 in F 

Major 

-F. Martin/Ballade 


Complex Meter (s) 


-0. Lueninq/ Sonata 

-V. Blazhevich/Concerto No. 10 in F 

Major 

-R. Sanders/Sonata in Eb 

-J. Casterede/En Noir et Rouge 

-J. Casterede/Sona tine 


Flutter Tongue 


-P. Bonneau/Faiitasie concertante 
-A. Pryor /Whistler and His Dog 
-D. Milhaud/Concertino d' ' hiver 


Glissando 


-A. Pryor /Whistler and His Dog 

-T . Serly/Concerto 

-E. Bloch /Symphony 

-F. Martin/Ballade 

-D. Milhaud/Concertiiio d' hiver 

-K. Serocki/Concerto for Trombone 

and Orchestra 



Shifting Slides 32 

Upon examination of the extended techniques used in 
selected accepted trombone literature prior to 1957 it should be 
noted that while there were several composers that utilized some 
extended techniques there was little variance or expansion. Of 
the literature surveyed there were only six extended techniques 
implemented (tapping foot, trill, multiple tonguing, complex 
meter (s), flutter tongue, glissando) . The alarming aspect to 
such a limited amount of extended techniques is the correlation 
to hundreds of years of the same standards and limitations to 
trombone playing. John Cage not only brought an end to this 
grind in innovation, he provided the springboard for a new 
generation of trombone playing and teaching. 

The extended techniques in Solo require the performer of 
many new methods of sound production. While some may see this 
solo as a conglomeration of nonsense, to properly execute there 
must be understanding of the composer and compositional method. 
This composition is built upon a new ideal, where sound and 
silence assume the role that harmony once had, and was meant to 
be taken seriously, just as previous masterworks of trombone 
literature. Buzzing the mouthpiece inside the bell once was 
outside the serious realm of trombone technique, Cage now 
incorporates it into Solo and requires that it must be executed 
with poise and exactness not clumsiness and distraction. Many of 



Shifting Slides 33 

these techniques and sounds, such as barking or buzzing with 
lips only could be viewed as gimmicks, to evoke a laugh not for 
serious thought or aesthetic value. The sounds called for do not 
sound as resonant and full as the normal tone of an instrument. 
As performers began to see the artistic value of avant-garde 
literature these new sound possibilities were seen in a new 
light. With a refreshed vision of extended techniques 
trombonists' began to require methods for learning and 
performing them. Just as years earlier there was the necessity 
of method books outlining execution procedures as well as 
teachers dedicated to the specialization of teaching extended 
techniques. With the works of John Cage and others to come 
there would be the birth of a new generation of trombone 
teachers and performers. 



Shifting Slides 34 

Resultant Literature and Pedagogy 

After the emergence of John Cage in trombone repertoire 
there was significant change in literature and pedagogy. The 
decade following Solo for Sliding Trombone is when the core of 
avant-garde literature comes to fruition. Composers like Luciano 
Berio who had been experimenting for a number of years wrote a 
solo for unaccompanied trombone in 1966, which would again push 
the boundaries of trombone playing. There would be eleven major 
avant-garde solos written for the trombone in the two decades 
following Cage's work, which would carry the influence of Solo, 
even to present day. 

One of the most notable of avant-garde trombone solos is 
Luciano Berio' s Sequenza V (1966) for trombone. This composition 
is a tour de force of extended technigues that build upon those 
in Solo for Sliding Trombone . There are many similarities in 
Solo for Sliding Trombone and Sequenza V. Like Cage, Berio gives 
a full page of instructions for the performer. As with Solo note 
heads have different meanings and have to be interpreted as 
such. Dynamics are graded by numbers, and there is a separate 
line below the staff that dictates the use of plunger mute, 
reminiscent of Solo. Cage introduced the separate spoken voice 
in Solo with the call of the performer to "bark". Berio takes 
this further with the development of vowel sounds with the 



Shifting Slides 35 

letters u, i, and e. The trombonist is also asked frequently to 
use multiphonics (playing and singing at the same time) . 

Collaboration is another key innovation that is carried 
over from Cage to Berio. Just as Cage sought out the help of 
trombonist Frank Rehak, Berio was assisted by two of the leading 
avant-garde trombonists of the time: Stuart Dempster and Vinko 
Globokar. This collaboration with Berio lead to the 
implementation of vowel sounds, multiphonics, notation, and 
programming. Without collaboration, neither of the two 
compositions would have reached their full potential. Restricted 
of first hand knowledge of idiosyncrasies of the instrument, 
composers would not understand the possibilities. This could 
result in an unplayable composition or, as so many times before, 
a composition that fails to progress the technical demands of 
the instrument. 



Shifting Slides 36 

Brad Edwards' Blue Wolf (1997) 

The modern incantation of Cage' s work can be seen in Brad 
Edwards' Blue. Wolf (1997) . This piece again has precise 
instructions for execution, but maintains a more tonal center. 
In keeping with traditional compositional techniques the piece 
has a clef, key, and time signature. The avant-garde influence 
in Blue Wolf is in the incorporation of multiphonics , and 
playing with tuning slide removed (See Figure 9) . Just as Cage 
had the performer disassemble the instrument and play only the 
slide or bell section, Edwards has the performer take the F- 
attachment slide out for the entirety of the piece. This 
requires the performer to learn new slide positions when playing 
through the F-attachment side of the instrument, as this alters 
the length of the instrument. Edwards also asks for a "Doppler" 
glissando that is played on the F-attachment side of the 
instrument (Figure 10). This "Doppler" glissando incorporates 
indeterminate pitches to create the illusion of the rising and 
falling of pitch due to moving objects (Edwards, 1999) . This 
composition is a descendant of many different eras of 
literature. It is directly tied with the avant-garde movement of 
Cage, containing many extended techniques, it has a strong blues 
influence, and has the tonality and construction of a 
traditional trombone solo. 



Shifting Slides 37 



Figure 9 



Brad Edwards Blue Wolf mm. 1-2 



H 



Merge with voice 
On zO\ /Ok 



£ 



^ 



-4 1 



niente 



m. 10 



With trigger tuning 
slide removed. 



rr\ 



4 



□ 



-^ 



Figure ll 



Brad Edwards Blue Wolf m.96 



"Doppler" glissando 

V 



i^^^yl 



/ mf 



Shifting Slides 31 

The impact of the new extended techniques found in Solo for 
Sliding Trombone was also felt in trombone pedagogy. Until the 
late 1950s many of the standard method books for trombone were 
the same as those used and developed decades prior. The 
celebrated methods of Joseph Jean Baptiste Laurent Arban and 
Vladislav Blazhevich were a standard method of study, but 
contained dated information. These texts contain studies and 
information that is prudent to all trombonists but is lacking in 
explanations of modern extended techniques. In response to this 
problem there were several new methods devoted solely to the 
teaching of extended techniques. Such studies include Stuart 
Dempster's treatise on modern technique, The Modern Trombone : A 
Definition of Its Idioms (1979) and David Baker's Contemporary 
Techniques for the Trombone (1974) . Both of these studies 
explain and take the reader through many of the techniques 
encountered in avant-garde music. 



Shifting Slides 39 

Teaching Extended Techniques 

Trombone teachers and college professors also had to retool 
after the mid twentieth century. Avant-garde literature was 
introduced into the trombone repertory through several steps; 
professionals like Dempster performed these pieces and students 
and teachers brought them into studios. With teachers and 
professors performing and teaching this material this meant that 
they must understand it and be able to perform the required 
techniques. This cycle caused a revolution in trombone playing 
in that teachers and students were learning new material at the 
same time, greatly increasing interest in the avant-garde 
movement. As students studied more avant-garde solos so did 
teachers, and as more teachers performed these solos more 
students wished to learn them. This resulted in performance of 
such solos on student and faculty recitals. As young composers 
heard these performances more interest was generated in the 
possibilities of this sound and style. These composers used the 
new ideas to create works with these new sounds and techniques 
in mind. In a survey by David Guion (See Figure 11) of recital 
repertory (1972-1978) of professionals, graduate students, and 
undergrad students many avant-garde compositions were being 
performed (Guion, 1997) . Of the total 45 listed, eight were 
avant-garde and included extended techniques. The solos from 



Shifting Slides 



40 



this list that do not include extended techniques are those 
written prior to 1957. This sharp rise in interest of avant- 
garde literature in the years following Cage's composition is 
what led to the development of modern trombone literature and 
technique . 

Figure 11. 

Recital Repertoire of the Trombone as Shown by Programs 
Published by the International Trombone Association (Through May 
1978) (Guion, 1997) (P-Professional , D-Doctoral , M-Masters , U- 
Undergraduate) 



No. 


Piece 


P 


D 


M 


U 


Total 


1 


Hindemith/Sonata 


6 


1 


2 


8 


17 


2 


Serocki/Sonatina 


5 


1 


6 


5 


17 


3 


Adler/Canto II 


2 


2 


1 


5 


10 


4 


Brown, J.E./lmpromptu 


5 


1 





4 


10 


5 


Casterede/Sonatine 


4 


1 


4 


1 


10 


6 


Wagenseil/Concerto 


4 


2 


2 


2 


10 


7 


Wilder/Sonata for bass trombone 


3 


2 


1 


4 


10 


8 


Cesare/La hieronyma 


4 


2 


2 


1 


9 


9 


George/Concerto 


3 


3 


1 


2 


9 


10 


Stevens/Sonata 


6 


1 


1 


1 


9 


11 


Tomasi/Concerto 


3 


3 





3 


9 


12 


Berio/Sequenza V 


3 


2 





3 


8 


13 


Bernstein/Elegy for Mippy II 


4 





1 


3 


8 


14 


Casterede/Fantasie concertante 


2 


1 


1 


3 


8 


15 


Larsson/Concertino 


3 





1 


4 


8 


16 


White/Sonata 


2 


2 





4 


8 


17 


Albrechtsberger/Concerto 


2 


1 


1 


3 


7 


18 


Davison/Sonata 


4 





1 


2 


7 



Shifting Slides 



41 



19 


Krenek/Five pieces 


3 


3 





1 


7 


20 


McCarty/Sonata 


2 


1 





4 


7 


21 


Muller/Praeludium, chorale, variations, and fugue 


1 





1 


5 


7 


22 


Saint Saens/Cavatine 


3 


1 


1 


2 


7 


23 


Schutz/Fili mi Absalon 


2 


3 





2 


7 


24 


Schwartz/Options 1 


4 





1 


2 


7 


25 


Stevens/Sonatina 





3 


2 


2 


7 


26 


Blacher/Divertimento 


3 


2 





1 


6 


27 


Bozza/Three pieces 


2 





2 


2 


6 


28 


Creston/Fantasy 


4 








2 


6 


29 


Druckman/Animus 1 


4 


1 





1 


6 


30 


Hartley/Sonata concertante 


2 


1 


1 


2 


6 


31 


Marini/Sonata 


2 


1 





3 


6 


32 


Monaco/Sonata 





1 


1 


4 


6 


33 


Ross/Prelude, fugue, and big apple 


4 


1 





1 


6 


34 


Biber/Sonata a 3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


5 


35 


Fux/Alma redemptoris Mater 


1 


3 


1 





5 


36 


Childs/Sonata 


2 








3 


5 


37 


David/Concertino 


3 


1 


1 





5 


38 


De Jong/Aanraking 


1 


1 





3 


5 


39 


Defaye/Deux danses 


3 





1 


1 


5 


40 


Gr0ndahl/Concerto 


2 


1 


1 


1 


5 


41 


Hartley/Sonata breve 


2 


1 





2 


5 


42 


Payne/Concert suite 


4 





1 





5 


43 


Persichetti/Serenade no. 6 


3 


1 





1 


5 


44 


Pryor/Thoughts of Love 


4 








1 


5 


45 


Sulek/Sonata 


5 











5 



Shifting Slides 42 

The direct impact within trombone studios was also 
significant. Now trombonists did not only have to learn the 
standard fundamentals of the instrument they also had to grasp 
the extended techniques being used. These techniques had effects 
on not only advanced undergraduate trombonists but also advanced 
high school level performers. Extended techniques began to 
appear in more solos as well as more band and orchestral 
literature . 

The initial hurdle to clear when attempting to learn 
extended techniques is mastering basic technique. Basic 
technique includes characteristic tone, articulation, rhythm, 
slide technique, and range. These must be mastered before any 
attempt at extended techniques can be made. Stuart Dempster 
(1979) writes: 

Traditional technique cannot be ignored, since it is 
mandatory in order to learn and master new techniques; 
learning and mastering new techniques enhance and define 
more clearly traditional techniques. The old and new, so 
seemingly separate, are actually inseparable and, in the 
long run, complementary, even if in the short run this 
seems not to be the case (p. 1) . 

Dempster goes on to cite that he discovered what he thought to 
be a new technique, or sound, with the Australian Aboriginal 



Shifting Slides 43 

didjeridu. The didjeridu is made of a hollowed out tree trunk 
and has characteristics similar to a brass instrument. To play 
this instrument one buzzes the lips and vocalizes different 
vowel sounds and pitches, similar to the manner in which 
multiphonics are produced on brass instruments. What he thought 
was a new sound turned out to be a concept thousands of years 
old (Dempster, 1979) . 

When teaching these techniques the teacher must understand 
that much of what the student has accomplished up to this point 
was done primarily through tactile trail and error 
experimentation (Gardner, 1983) . When a student is told to 
initially play an instrument he or she has to experiment with 
mouthpiece placement, breath, and pitch recognition. Even as the 
student progresses this method remains the same, it is just that 
there are smaller, finer adjustments to make. Auditory learning 
also takes place during the fundamental stages of learning an 
instrument. A student must learn to match pitch and tone with 
others. The auditory element is expanded upon with extended 
techniques (Gardner, 1983) . Students will be asked to sing while 
playing, execute microtones, and make sounds that are 
uncharacteristic of the normal tones of the instrument. The 
teacher must take into account that if a student is not an 
auditory learner the grasp of extended techniques will take 



Shifting Slides 44 

somewhat longer than other students that are auditory learners. 
In this case much more experimentation will be needed for 
success . 

Multiphonics 

When a student is beginning to learn extended technigues he 
or she should consult one of the sources mentioned earlier like 
Stuart Dempster's (1979) text outlining and explaining many of 
the technigues one will encounter. However, it will be up to the 
student and teacher to unravel these technigues and make them 
work for the individual. If a student is beginning to learn 
multiphonics, or vocalizing while playing, there are a certain 
fundamentals that need to be in place. A student must have a 
characteristic tone, be able to sing and match pitch, and be 
able to control the vocal chords and embouchure separately. If a 
student can not match pitch with his voice, this must be the 
first step. The teacher should begin by having the student 
slowly discover their voice and how to control it. Sirens 
ranging from high to low and simple scale figures can help with 
the initial control of the voice. After the student has control 
of his voice the next step is to have them play and sing. A good 
first introduction into this is to have the student play a mid 
range note such as an f and vocalize anything as they are 
playing. It can be any note in any range, as the most difficult 



Shifting Slides 45 

part of multiphonics is getting used to the experience of 
playing and singing at the same time. This is a difficult 
concept because from the first days with the instrument the 
student was most likely told to open up the throat and allow 
only the lips to vibrate. Now the student has to allow both the 
lips and vocal folds vibrate. This in itself can cause another 
problem, allowing the vocal folds activate when the student is 
not using multiphonics, which again shows the difficulty of 
learning this technique. After the student has experimented with 
vocalizing and playing it is now time to create intervals, which 
again call upon auditory skills. The teacher should have the 
student play a B-flat and vocalize an f creating a perfect 
fifth. This interval is one of the easiest to produce and tune, 
which makes it a great place to start. Have the student move 
down chromatically to A and vocalize an e, and then to A-flat, 
and so on downward chromatically. Once the student has control 
of the perfect fifth-interval have them move to the octave and 
repeat the exercise. The next step in multiphonics is to be able 
to move the voice and embouchure independently. Have the student 
drone a B-flat and vocalize an f and then move the voice down 
and then up finding the intervals. Repeat the process but have 
them drone the voice and move the pitch on the instrument. The 
final step in learning multiphonics is to be able to move the 
voice and embouchure in opposite directions. When learning 



Shifting Slides 46 

exercises for moving in opposite direction remain in the same 
register as previous exercises, have the student drone an A-flat 
and vocalize an e-flat. Once this interval is established have 
them move the A-flat to an A and the e-flat to a d creating a 
perfect fourth, another relatively easy interval. These 
preliminary exercises cover the initial mastery of multiphonics, 
but will need to then be transferred into different registers. 
The student's own vocal range will also have a bearing on how 
high or low he or she will be able to produce multiphonics. The 
exercises are referenced in the Appendix under "Student Study 
Exercises" . 

Glissando 

Another technique that goes beyond normal playing 
expectations is the glissando. At first thought many trombonists 
and non-trombonists would think that performing a glissando is 
simple, "just move the slide and make noise, that's a 
glissando . " Unfortunately glissandi are not that simple. As 
with multiphonics the student must have the fundamentals of 
tone, articulation, range, rhythm, and slide technique before 
attempting to master the gamut of glissandi available. Glissandi 
are on one harmonic partial and occur when the slide is moved in 
constant motion down or up that partial without disturbance of 
air or articulation. Glissandi require control of air stream and 



Shifting Slides 47 

embouchure to maintain a correct tone throughout. Other 
glissandi are possible which include the harmonic glissando, or 
"overtone rip" (Cage, 1979) as Cage refers to it. The harmonic 
glissando happens when the trombonist moves the slide down or 
up, without disturbance in air stream or articulation, moving 
across harmonic partials. This creates a "ripping" sound similar 
to that of a French Horn rip or a glissando on the harp, which 
is more rough sounding than a same-partial glissando . 

Teaching glissandi is far simpler than teaching 
multiphonics, as most trombone players are attracted to the 
trombone in part because of its ability to glissando . If a 
student has not discovered a glissando the teacher should have 
him start on f and move the slide to sixth position without 
stopping the note or lessening the air stream. This should 
produce a basic glissando . Have him then transfer this to 
different harmonic partials, both higher and lower (See 
Appendix) . After the basic glissando is comfortable then move on 
to harmonic glissandos . To begin learning harmonic glissandos 
have the student start again on f and move to a, and back down 
(slide positions 1, 2, 1) without articulating or stopping the 
air stream. This should produce a slur. Next, the student should 
start on f again, move to a and then to c and back down (slide 
positions 1, 2, 3, 2, 1) again without stopping the air stream 



Shifting Slides 41 

or articulating. Increase the speed of the slide action and 
there will be a harmonic glissando . Add notes above and change 
beginning notes to supplement. As students advance so will their 
need for greater control of glissandos . Trombonists need to be 
able to perform glissandos in all registers and dynamics. They 
will also need to place emphasis at different points of the 
glissando according to what the style of music calls for (See 
Appendix) . 

Other extended techniques call for similar methods of 
teaching and learning, always relying on a strong set of 
fundamentals before attempting. The avant-garde movement and 
Cage' s Solo for Sliding Trombone provided for the trombone a new 
set of techniques and thus new methods needed for teaching them. 
Teachers had to develop new methods to teach techniques that had 
never been seen before, which resulted in new pedagogical 
material for the trombone. These factors contribute to the 
advancement of trombone technique and pedagogy. 



Conclusion 



Shifting Slides 49 

The trombone, a fixture in the musical world, has endured a 
fascinating lifespan. From its roots, dating from the fifteenth 
century, until the mid-twentieth century there were little 
developments in trombone literature and technique. As other 
instruments enjoyed literature from leading composers like 
Mozart and Beethoven the trombone scuttled along with only a 
handful of notable solos. This lack of literature permeated into 
the pedagogy of trombone. Trombone technique remained very much 
the same for hundreds of years as the instrument itself did not 
change and composers felt uninformed or uninterested in the 
instrument (Herbert 2006) . With technique at a standstill there 
was very little need for professional trombone teachers. This 
lack of interest and knowledge began to lessen as the twentieth 
century approached. Arthur Pryor gave the trombone numerous new 
works and began to expand technique. Leonard Bernstein infused 
jazz into the classical literature with Elegy for Mippy II. 
These events led up to John Cage's Solo for Sliding Trombone, 
which brought an end to the drought of new trombone technique 
and literature. Solo for Sliding Trombone was collaboration 
between performer and composer that culminated in the 
development of many new techniques and a fresh compositional 
style that would result in copious solos written for the 
instrument. Cage's work and ideas can still be seen in present 
literature and felt in trombone studios world-wide. Solo for 



Shifting Slides 50 

Sliding Trombone revived the trombone and acted as a catalyst 
for the future. 



Shifting Slides 51 



Appendix 



Student Study Exercises 



Shifting Slides 



52 



Match Pitch 



Multiphonics Exercises 
Study No. 1 



Flay 



Sing 



Sim. 



W 2 



While playing vocalize any pitch 



m 



Vocalize any pitch and 
move it higher and lower 



Multiphonics with the P4 Interval 



Pla\ 



m 



Sms 



Plav Sing 



Plav 



Sing 



-&- 



Plav 



a 



Sing 
^s- — 



Plav Sing 

i- 



Plav Sing 



TC 



TC 



Play 



Sing 



Plav Sing 

- ^L 



Plav Sing 

U- 



Plav 



m 



-ea- 



sing 
as 



Play 



Sing 



Plav 



Sing 



Shifting Slides 53 



Plav 



m 



Sing 



Multiphomcs with the P5 Interval 
Plav Sing 

y 



Plav 



Sing 



zrt 



Plav 



Sing 
-0 — 



Plav 



Smg 



Plav Sing 



m 



Plav 



m 



Sing 



Play Sing 

J 



Plav Sing 



T7" 



TT 



Plav 



m 



Sins, 



Plav Sing 

i 



Plav Sing 



Plav 



Sing 



Multiphomcs with the P8 Interval 
Plav Sing 

J U 



Plav 



Sing 



o^ 



>«>- 



Plav 






Sing 
— e« — 



Play Sing 
j_ 



Plav Sim 



Plav 



Sing 



Play Sing 
U— 



Pis 



Sing 



m: 



2n= 



Shifting Slides 



54 



Multiphonics Exercises 
Study No. 2 

Moving Voice and Instrument in Opposite Directions 



Play round nole heads on instrument 
Sing Square note heads 



m 



J- ,- j 



-*r 



¥ 



a 



j^=^ 



i/S 



!.'>: 



f^EE^f 



f^3f 



^ 



J "" Tb. l 



J- TbJ 



te 



l>e> a g 



^ 



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Shifting Slides 55 





Glissando Exercises 






Study No. 1 

Basic Ghssandos 




Do not articulate 

Keep air stream constant 

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Shifting Slides 56 



Varying Dynamics with Glissandos 



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Shifting Slides 



57 



Glissando Exercises 
Study No. 2 



Harmonic Glissando 



Slurs arc lo be performed with no tongue 
Natural .slur 



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The result will he a harmonic glissandc 
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Until glissando/rip erlect occurs 



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This should be executed in the same maimer as above 
Producing a harmonic glissando/rip 
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Shifting Slides 5: 



References 



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Berio, L. (1968) . Sequenza V For trombone solo. London: 
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Bernstein, L. (1950) . Elegy for Mippy II: For trombone alone. 
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Cage, J. (1960) . Solo for sliding trombone . New York: Henmar 
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Cassone, G. (2006) . Mutes from monteverdi to miles: the story of 
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http : //www. tomcrownmutes . com/ learn history . html 



Shifting Slides 59 

Chilton, J. G. (2007). Non-intentional performance practice in 
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David, F. (1946). Concertino, op. 4 (1837). New York: Carl 
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Dempster, S. (1979) . The modern trombone : A definition of its 
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Edwards, B. (2001). Blue wolf: For unaccompanied trombone 

(1999). Austin, Tex: International Trombone Association 
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Gardner, H. (1983) . Frames of mind: The theory of multiple 
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Guion, D. M. (2010) . A history of the trombone . Lanham, Md : 
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Guion, D. (1997) . Recital repertoire of the trombone as shown by 
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Herbert, T. (2006). The trombone. The Yale musical instrument 
series. New Haven: Yale University Press. 



Shifting Slides 60 

Hindemith, P. (1942). Sonata for trombone and piano (1941). 
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Lindberg, C. (2010) . Ferdinand david concertino for trombone op 
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Pritchett, J. (1993). The music of John Cage. Music in the 
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Pryor, A. (1900) . Blue bells of Scotland. New York: C. Fischer. 

Rosner, A, & Slotover, R. (2006) . Vinko globokar . Retrieved from 
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1 

"serial music." The Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition. 2008. 
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http : //www. encyclopedia. com/doc/ IE 1-serialmu . html 

Thompson, J. M. (2004). Solos for the student trombonist: An 
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Press . 



Shifting Slides 61 

Webb, B. (2007). Performing Berio's "Sequenza V" . Contemporary 
Performance . 2 07-218.